- Regular Article
- Open Access
Testing the hypothesis of preferential attachment in social network formation
- Thomas House^{1, 2}Email authorView ORCID ID profile,
- Jonathan M Read^{3},
- Leon Danon^{4} and
- Matthew J Keeling^{2}
- Received: 2 July 2015
- Accepted: 28 September 2015
- Published: 9 October 2015
Abstract
The hypothesis of preferential attachment (PA) - whereby better connected individuals make more connections - is hotly debated, particularly in the context of epidemiological networks. The simplest models of PA, for example, are incompatible with the eradication of any disease through population-level control measures such as random vaccination. Typically, evidence has been sought for the presence or absence of preferential attachment via asymptotic power-law behaviour. Here, we present a general statistical method to test directly for evidence of PA in count data and apply this to data for contacts relevant to the spread of respiratory diseases. We find that while standard methods for model selection prefer a form of PA, careful analysis of the best fitting PA models allows for a level of contact heterogeneity that in fact allows control of respiratory diseases. Our approach is based on a flexible but numerically cheap likelihood-based model that could in principle be applied to other integer data where the hypothesis of PA is of interest.
Keywords
- MLE
- Phase-type distribution
- model selection
- spectral methods
1 Introduction
1.1 Contact heterogeneity in infectious disease epidemiology
Infectious pathogens that spread via contact between people are a major cause of human disease, driving attempts to understand their epidemiology [1]. Much theoretical work on infectious disease dynamics has been focused on the role of heterogeneity in the human population [2], which is often conceptualised as a network of epidemiologically relevant contacts [3–5].
1.2 Data
Of course, whether such a theoretical possibility matters for the study of infectious diseases depends on the actual variance in degree for epidemiologically relevant contacts. While 20th century models of infectious disease were often based on strong a priori assumptions about mixing patterns [1], various methods for measurement of contact patterns now exist and were reviewed by Read et al. [10]. As well as direct measurement of individuals through surveys [11] it is possible to improve coverage through snowball and respondent-driven sampling [12, 13], to make use of the extremely large datasets produced by electronic sensors [14, 15], and also to combine aggregate data [16, 17].
These empirical observations of high heterogeneity in contact number, together with theoretical results about \(R_{0}\), present a paradox for infectious disease epidemiology: is the extreme heterogeneity in observed contact patterns indicative of PA and does that imply that \(R_{0}>1\) for almost any finite level of person-to-person transmissibility meaning that our theoretical understanding of infectious disease epidemiology is somehow severely lacking?
1.3 Preferential attachment and power laws in empirical data
Recent years have seen a debate about the level of heterogeneity that exists in a variety of observed networks. A particularly influential paper by Barabási and Albert [22] considered a model of network formation in which many new nodes are added to a small existing network. These new nodes connect preferentially to nodes that have more links in the existing network, leading to the asymptotic result (2) with \(\gamma=3\). In this way preferential attachment is intimately linked with, but not always equivalent to, asymptotic power-law behaviour.
Simple power-law relationships have been claimed for numerous real-world systems, and a critical review of these claims by Clauset et al. [23] used maximum-likelihood fitting of distribution tails to power-law distributions to show varying levels of statistical support for claims in the literature. In the context of discrete data, pioneering work by Zipf [24] found power-laws in word frequencies; considering the count of unique words in Moby Dick both Newman [25] and Clauset et al. [23] agree that the statistical evidence for Zipf’s power-law distribution in this context is strong. On the other hand, the in- and out-degrees of E. coli metabolic networks have been claimed to follow a power law [26], but this is disputed by the analyses of Huss and Holme [27] and Clauset et al. [23].
The debate around presence or absence of power laws in real data continues, perhaps most strongly in the context of networks. For example, Barabási [28] writes that preferential attachment is network science’s “most profuse concept,” and that “the impact of preferential attachment is hard to miss.” At the same time, Stumpf and Porter [29] argue that “most reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backing.”
1.4 Testing preferential attachment directly
In this work, we attempt to test the hypothesis of preferential attachment in social contact data directly, rather than via asymptotic power law behaviour. We make use of previously collected data on social encounters specifically designed to measure heterogeneity in numbers of contacts amongst the British population, and fit mechanistic models of different complexity to these data. We determine that models with significant levels of preferential attachment have better evidential support from the data than models without.
2 Methods
2.1 Social Contact Survey data
A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2009 and October 2010, recruiting households and individuals through postal and online questionnaires, supported by a large random-address mailshot and a modest online and media promotion [30, 31]. Questionnaires asked respondents to report on the number of distinct individuals they encountered the previous day: their contacts. Respondents were able to report contacts either as individuals or as members of a group with a reported size. Allowing the reporting of groups of individuals was a deliberate methodological design to permit the easy reporting of large numbers of contacts, to avoid the approach taken by previous studies [11], which imposed a high burden on respondents with large number of contacts, and to ensure the best capture of the right-hand tail of the degree distribution. In general, we expect that such data will become increasingly available due to the epidemiological importance of this tail (e.g. the study of Read et al. [21]).
In total, completed questionnaires were received from 5,388 participants in Great Britain, 3,901 of which were from postal surveys. There was some bias in demographical representation, most notably younger age groups and males were generally under-represented (see Danon et al. [31] for more details). The data is available at http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/54273/.
2.2 Generalised preferential attachment
2.3 Phase-type holding times
The question is then posed as to an appropriate distribution from which to draw the holding times \(\{T_{i}\}\) for the amount of time spent making new contacts on the day for which individuals provide data. In previous work [30] on a related model of contact formation we considered holding times \(T_{i}\) that were log-normally distributed. This provided a good fit to data, but was computationally intensive and lacked a mechanistic interpretation. We therefore consider here a class of distributions for the holding times that is highly flexible, but which has analytic and numerical benefits - the distributions of phase type [35]. Phase-type distributions are dense in the space of positive-valued probability distributions [36], meaning that they can be made arbitrarily close to any other distribution. They have a mechanistic interpretation and allow for analytic manipulations that greatly reduce the numerical cost of likelihood evaluation.
In general, however, combination of (10) and (6) is not the most numerically efficient method for calculation of the overall probability mass function for final number of contacts \(K_{i}(T_{i})\) and a different approach is needed.
2.4 Numerically efficient model solution
2.5 Model likelihood, fitting and selection
We consider the use of the likelihood function (20) using standard statistical methodology. Numerical maximum likelihood estimation was performed using simulated annealing run from multiple starting points to ensure the global optimum was obtained. Model selection was performed using AIC [38] and BIC [39], as well as likelihood ratio tests [40] on pairs of models where this test was informative. This was done since each approach involves different trade-offs between model fit and complexity, and to check that our conclusions about PA are not overly sensitive to the precise method used. Uncertainty in model parameters was quantified using confidence intervals obtained through bootstrapping the data, and uncertainty in model outputs such as the predicted degree distribution was quantified using a parametric bootstrap.
3 Results and discussion
Comparison of models with different numbers of phases, with and without preferential attachment (PA), together with: number of parameters; differences in AIC and BIC values compared to the overall minimum; and the lowest divergent moment for models with PA
(Phases, PA) | No. Params | ΔAIC | ΔBIC | Diverge |
---|---|---|---|---|
(1,No) | 1 | 2.2 × 10^{3} | 2.1 × 10^{3} | – |
(2,No) | 4 | 2.1 × 10^{2} | 1.5 × 10^{2} | – |
(3,No) | 8 | 1.2 × 10^{2} | 83 | – |
(4,No) | 13 | 42 | 38 | – |
(5,No) | 19 | 23 | 58 | – |
(6,No) | 26 | 27 | 1.1 × 10^{2} | – |
(1,Yes) | 2 | 1.9 × 10^{2} | 1.1 × 10^{2} | 3 |
(2,Yes) | 5 | 1.3 × 10^{2} | 72 | 4 |
(3,Yes) | 9 | 31 | \(\mathbf{[0]}\) | 3 |
(4,Yes) | 14 | 11 | 14 | 3 |
(5,Yes) | 20 | \(\mathbf{[0]}\) | 42 | 3 |
(6,Yes) | 27 | 9 | 97 | 3 |
For the 3-phase model with PA, \(\tau= 0.018\ [0.012,0.026]\); and if we set \(\tau=0\) but leave the other parameters at their fitted values, then the total number of contacts per person is reduced to 64% of its original value. For the 5-phase model with PA \(\tau= 0.026\ [0.019,0.036]\); and if we set \(\tau=0\) but leave the other parameters at their fitted values, then the total number of contacts per person is reduced to 58% of its original value. This shows that in both of these models, we can attribute a substantial fraction of the contacts to PA.
We also calculate that the second moment does not diverge in any of the fitted models, which helps to resolve the epidemiological paradox that we introduced at the start of this paper. PA is empirically supported, and is also mechanistically plausible since existing social contacts give more opportunities for future social contact. Combined with a sufficiently detailed phase-based mechanistic model of the contexts in which social contacts are made, however, PA does not imply a divergent second moment for the distribution of contacts relevant for the spread of directly transmitted infections. This means that our understanding of how basic epidemiological quantities like the basic reproductive ratio, \(R_{0}\), are related to contact networks does not need to be revised in the light of empirical evidence.
As a final observation, we believe that as computational resources for fitting models to data improve, it will in general be easier to test the hypothesis of PA directly in all kinds of data, rather than looking for asymptotic power laws.
Declarations
Acknowledgements
The Social Contact Survey was funded by the Medical Research Council, grant number G0701256. TH and MJK are supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. JMR and MJK are supported by the Economic and Social Research Council, grant ES/K004255/1. LD is supported by the Leverhulme Trust.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Authors’ Affiliations
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