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Table 4 Further relevant events (continued)

From: Crowd disasters as systemic failures: analysis of the Love Parade disaster

Starting 16:53 The emergency vehicle stops in the middle of the crowd. Strong shock waves occur all over the crowd and push people to the ground between tunnel and staircase.93 Arms are lifted up and people are screaming. A group of people is aggressively pushing their way towards the tunnel (see endnote93 between minutes 1:28 and 1:35). Some people are crawling on top of others to get towards the staircase. A helicopter flies overhead. Someone fixes a rope above the tunnel to allow people to climb up.93,94
16:54-17:03 Some people get pulled up to the narrow staircase. A ladder is lowered down to the container at the South end of the ramp, and a woman, who seems to be hurt, is lying down on the container.95,96
Starting 16:57 People are pulled up one by one via the container.97 People in the crowd are being pushed around. A few people climb onto other people, trying to get out of the crowd. A woman is screaming loudly.98
Starting 16:58 The situation is extremely crowded. Some people scramble up the narrow staircase. Many people yell for help.99
Starting 16:59 More people are pulled up from the crowded container to the festival area above. Security guards and police walk along the East side. A police officer is filming.100 An ambulance car is approaching on the freeway in the West.
Starting 17:01 View of emergency forces near the staircase area.101
Starting 17:02 People scramble up the stairs. Many people are yelling for help. The situation is extremely crowded. Police attempt to control the crowd.102
17:02 First victims are reported on the ramp.6,19
Starting 17:03 The stairs are clearing slightly, and some people are able to get up.103
Starting 17:03 A man is trying to grab people and pull them up on the South over the container. Police holds the fence back. An orange ladder is used to get people out from the container.104
Around 17:04 Seven policemen are talking to a few people. Two are helping someone on the ground.105
Starting 17:05 A view from the tunnel shows some people climbing up over the container, also with the help of ropes. It seems that people in the tunnel behind are still reasonably fine. Some of them appear to be dancing.106
Starting 17:05 More people are able to get up via the staircase. The density in the ramp area is reduced, and the police are turning around some people at the back of the crowd, who are still trying to get to the stairs.107
Starting 17:05 A crowd of people has fallen in front of the stairs, raising their arms up. Some rescue workers and festival attendees are pulling people out. One policeman tries to hold back the crowd. An emergency vehicle is guided to the ramp area by the police, coming from the East tunnel.108
Starting 17:07 The stairs are still crowded. Someone is shouting for help by the police. Some policemen on the stairs help people up.109
Starting 17:08 Someone is yelling at the police.110 People are pulled out of the fallen crowd, and some receive first aid. The crowd below the staircase seems ‘cleared’ by the end of the video, and there is a considerable amount of police and rescue forces.111
Starting 17:08 People can be seen lying on top of each other. The situation is still crowded, but the density eventually reduces.112
Starting 17:09 The situation continues to be crowded, but people are starting to move more smoothly up the stairs. The area around the fallen people empties.113
17:15 The operation room of the city of Duisburg does not seem to be aware of the critical situation. It still calls the Love Parade a big success.114
Starting 17:16 The situation on the ramp has cleared up, but the group of fallen people still seems to be without professional help. A rescue crew appears in the South-West corner. A person is lying unconsciously on the ground. Many people try to resuscitate others. Fallen visitors are pulled out of the pile of people.115
Around 17:20 The crowd has mostly dissolved. Fire and ambulance cars are parked in the South of the ramp. A woman tries to provide first aid to a man in the South-West corner. At least 2 other people provide first aid to people on the ground.116
Around 18:00 It is decided not to terminate the Love Parade to avoid further critical situations (by evacuating the festival area too quickly).6,19,117