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Figure 3 | EPJ Data Science

Figure 3

From: Crowd disasters as systemic failures: analysis of the Love Parade disaster

Figure 3

Illustration of causal interdependencies between different factors that have most likely contributed to the emergence of the crowd disaster during the Love Parade in Duisburg . One can see that the reason for the crowd disaster was not a single factor, but amplifying feedback and cascading effects, as it is typical for systemic instabilities. Therefore, most contributing factors are consequences of other factors. Also note that causal dependencies have to be clearly distinguished from legal responsibilities. (Question marks indicate likely contributing factors, which we have not proven by us in a strict sense, but are plausible conclusions that are not questioned by any counter-evidence known to us.)

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