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Table 2 Overview of technologies and methods for crowd density assessment

From: Probing crowd density through smartphones in city-scale mass gatherings

Sensor modality Class Method Reference
Video Holistic Optical flow [19]
Fractal dimension [41]
Pixel counting [42]
Machine learning [43]
Object-based Trajectories [22, 28]
Supervised classification [44]
Unsupervised clustering [45]
Social force model [26]
Smartphone In-network CDR [32, 33]
Network bandwidth usage [31, 46]
On-device Trajectories [14, 38]
Other Bluetooth beacons [39, 47]
  1. Overview of technologies and methods to automatically to assess crowd density. Different video-based approaches have been investigated, a selection of methods is given here. Thanks to the location-awareness of modern smartphones, they have increasingly been considered as an alternative platform for crowd monitoring.