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Table 1 Features constructed according to the category: features related to characteristics of the director, of the addresses, of the companies, of the owners, or of combinations. A full description of each variable can be found in Appendix A.4

From: Uncovering the size of the illegal corporate service provider industry in the Netherlands: a network approach

Characteristics of directors Characteristics of the companies
Is the director an individual or a corporate entity? Any company in a CSP-related sector?
Director’s name contains a corporate keyword Log number of companies
Corporate director in a CSP-related sector String similarity between company names
Director appears in offshore leaks % of companies in finance
  % of holding companies (NACE 6420)
Characteristics of both directors and companies % of real estate companies
Corporate director: shared directors with companies % of top holdings
Name similarity between companes and director % of administrative companies
% of companies with the title “director” % of companies with unknown sector
% of companies with the most frequent title % of companies in retail/wholesale
Number of shared directors between the companies % of companies in construction
Average number of previous directors per company % of companies of top sector
% of companies with a previous licensed CSP % of BVs
  % of Foundations
Characteristics of the addresses % of VOFs
Log # of companies in the top office address % of Cooperatives
Log # of companies in the top poastal address % of CVs
% of companies in the top office address % of companies with the top legal form
% of companies in the top postal address Number of companies in offshore leaks
% of companies previously in an address of CSP (augmented)  
% of companies previously in an address of CSP  
Number of office addresses in offshore leaks Characteristics of the owners
Number of postal addresses in offshore leaks Number of directors that are also owners
Average number of previous address % of directors that are also owners
  % of companies with unknown owner
Characteristics of both owners and companies % of companies with domestic owner
Log number of independent companies % of companies with foreign owner
Number of directors per independent company % of companies with owner in an OFC
Number of companies per independent company