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Table 5 As Table 2, but for the composers that appear in Table 4 (and do not appear in the former), in chronological order. The horizontal line separates composers in the top-5, middle-6, and bottom-5 categories for relative richness and entropy (not for \(\langle F \rangle \))

From: Heaps’ law and vocabulary richness in the history of classical music harmony

Composer Birth Death L V # pieces
Guillaume Dufay 1397 1474 3008 190 10
Josquin Desprez 1450 1521 7118 250 32
Cristóbal de Morales 1500 1553 40,380 333 88
Giovanni P. da Palestrina 1525 1594 20,369 292 70
Orlande de Lassus 1532 1594 10,988 304 70
Tomás Luis de Victoria 1548 1611 113,162 423 333
John Dowland 1563 1626 12,376 372 61
Carlo Gesualdo 1566 1613 8347 396 37
Samuel Scheidt 1587 1654 3878 233 8
Jean-Baptiste Lully 1632 1687 17,917 477 107
Johann Pachelbel 1653 1706 48,081 892 182
Domenico Scarlatti 1685 1757 12,874 747 43
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger 1736 1809 4760 511 13
Muzio Clementi 1752 1832 41,458 1250 46
Johann Baptist Cramer 1771 1858 3949 657 29
Niccolò Paganini 1782 1840 7692 713 23
Hector Berlioz 1803 1869 9333 805 8
Felix Mendelssohn 1809 1847 48,262 1506 50
Louis Moreau Gottschalk 1829 1869 19,675 1035 36
Alexandre Guilmant 1837 1911 3397 522 11
Georges Bizet 1838 1875 12,955 783 21
Edvard Grieg 1843 1907 43,033 1430 30
Gabriel Urbain Fauré 1845 1924 49,608 1704 97
Erik Satie 1866 1925 14,179 913 47
Max Reger 1873 1916 12,205 1725 32
Serguéi Rajmáninov 1873 1943 13,783 2231 16
Nikolai Medtner 1880 1951 4653 1233 7
Béla Bartók 1881 1945 9203 1766 18
Paul Hindemith 1895 1963 10,626 2039 22
George Gershwin 1898 1937 9988 1827 12
Olivier Messiaen 1908 1992 4386 541 9