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Table 4 Top-5, middle-6, and bottom-5 composers as ranked by relative richness R, entropy S, and average filling \(\langle F \rangle \)

From: Heaps’ law and vocabulary richness in the history of classical music harmony

Rank by R R Rank by S S (bits) Rank by 〈FF
Hindemith 1.683 Stravinsky 9.945 Medtner 4.462
Rajmáninov 1.680 Mahler 9.914 Rajmáninov 4.316
Stravinsky 1.595 Rajmáninov 9.777 Stravinsky 4.314
Gershwin 1.530 Hindemith 9.746 Reger 4.285
Bartók 1.521 Gershwin 9.709 Gershwin 4.087
Grieg 0.212 Mendelssohn 8.265 Scheidt 3.277
Berlioz 0.150 Clementi 8.222 Gesualdo 3.266
Gottschalk 0.130 Schubert 8.190 Liszt 3.258
Satie 0.112 Cramer 8.065 Albrechtsberger 3.257
Paganini 0.057 Scarlatti 7.984 Fauré 3.256
Guilmant 0.016 Pachelbel 7.898 Dowland 3.255
Dufay −1.663 Scheidt 6.169 Bizet 2.906
Desprez −1.714 Morales 6.128 Messiaen 2.791
Palestrina −2.087 Victoria 5.982 Lully 2.756
Morales −2.277 Palestrina 5.938 Dufay 2.751
Victoria −2.492 Lassus 5.803 Paganini 2.621