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Table 1 In-sample results. Regression results for asylum acceptance rates considering public debate in the media and economic indicators as explanatory variables. \(R^{2}\) values are as in [66]. Coefficients of public debate variables represent logit-logit marginal effects. Coefficients of control variables represent % change in odds with respect to 1 standard deviation change in variable. Small number in parentheses below estimates represents standard error

From: Public debate in the media matters: evidence from the European refugee crisis

 Dep. variable: Logit (Acceptance ratesijt)
 Media modelsControls modelsFull models
 (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Media measures: (\(X _{i}^{t} - \overline{ X }_{i}^{t}\))      
Sentiment, refugee − baseline 0.099   −1.082
 (0.078)   (0.718)
Sentiment, refugee0.462   1.186 
(0.035)   (0.399) 
Attention−0.0040.006  0.0380.071
(0.002)(0.002)  (0.017)(0.016)
Media measures:\(\overline{ X }_{i}\)      
Sentiment, refugee0.8590.97  0.2750.983
(0.38)(0.38)  (4.515)(4.592)
Attention0.0290.026  0.3220.314
(0.011)(0.011)  (0.195)(0.203)
Time-dependent controls: (\(X _{i}^{t} - \overline{ X }_{i}^{t}\))      
Apps. received  0.0230.010.0010.002
  (0.014)(0.014)(0.014)(0.014)
GDP   −0.066−0.074−0.072
   (0.024)(0.023)(0.023)
Gov. debt   0.1240.1110.12
   (0.027)(0.026)(0.027)
Unemployment   0.0110.0110.017
   (0.014)(0.014)(0.014)
CPI   −0.0020.0030.023
   (0.03)(0.03)(0.03)
Gov. ideology (left < 0 < right)   −0.019−0.009−0.008
   (0.016)(0.016)(0.016)
Press freedom index   0.2470.2110.236
   (0.021)(0.023)(0.022)
Time-invariant controls:\(\overline{ X }_{i}\)      
Apps. received  0.080.0380.0180.016
  (0.093)(0.097)(0.096)(0.095)
GDP   −1.297−0.812−0.794
   (0.307)(0.409)(0.394)
Gov. debt   1.5030.8530.841
   (0.415)(0.575)(0.55)
Unemployment   −0.447−0.451−0.448
   (0.149)(0.15)(0.149)
CPI   0.3090.3160.323
   (0.124)(0.126)(0.122)
Gov. ideology (left < 0 < right)   0.0890.0750.065
   (0.086)(0.09)(0.091)
Press freedom index   0.0250.3510.354
   (0.126)(0.235)(0.232)
Num. observations11,59311,59311,59311,59311,59311,593
Marginal \(R^{2}\)0.020.01>0.010.060.060.06
Conditional \(R^{2}\)0.760.760.790.790.790.79
AICc−9662−941442,19941,72441,50541,175
BIC−9603−935642,24341,85741,66741,337
  1. Note:p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001.