(A) A musical score can be converted to a sequence of codeword (simultaneously-played notes) transitions (blue box). (B) The backbone of the network of codeword transitions in our data. Only 2267 out of 144,183 codewords (1.5%) are shown. The node radius indicates the number of transitions into and out of the corresponding codeword, while the edge width indicates the number of the corresponding transition. The node colour indicates the period when the corresponding codeword first appeared (blue-Baroque, green-Classical, yellow-Transition, red-Romantic). (C) The cumulative distribution of the occurrences of the codewords and the cumulative number of unique codeword transitions ever used (inset). The distribution exhibits a highly-skewed, power law-like behavior with power exponent \(\rho=2.13 \pm0.02\) established early in history (Fig. S1).