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Table 1 Knowledge density and world development indicators

From: Mapping the physics research space: a machine learning approach

World development indicator Correlation Pvalue Logs
Economic Development
 Economic Fitness Metric [88, 89] 0.76 0.00  
 GDP per capita 0.47 0.00 x
Research and Development
 Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) 0.67 0.00 x
 Researchers in R&D (per million people) 0.52 0.00 x
 Technicians in R&D (per million people) 0.55 0.00 x
 Industrial design applications by residents 0.72 0.00 x
 Industrial design applications by nonresidents 0.49 0.00 x
 Patent applications by residents 0.82 0.00 x
 Patent applications by nonresidents 0.43 0.00 x
 Trademark applications by residents 0.71 0.00 x
 Trademark applications by nonresidents 0.58 0.00 x
Production and Exports
 Medium and high-tech Industry (% manufacturing value added) 0.55 0.00  
 Medium and high-tech exports (% manufactured exports) 0.60 0.00  
 High-technology exports 0.77 0.00 x
Education Attainment
 At least completed lower secondary (% 25+ population) 0.41 0.00  
 At least completed upper secondary (% 25+ population) 0.34 0.02  
 At least completed post-secondary (% 25+ population) 0.25 0.08  
 At least completed short-cycle tertiary (% 25+ population) 0.32 0.02  
Unemployment of Educated Labor Force
 Unemployment with advanced education (% of total labor force with advanced education) −0.34 0.01  
 Unemployment with intermediate education (% of total labor force with intermediate education) −0.22 0.10  
NEET
 Share of youth not in education, employment or training, female (% of female youth population) −0.36 0.00 x
 Share of youth not in education, employment or training, total (% of youth population) −0.32 0.01 x
  1. p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001.
  2. Description: Correlation analysis between the average knowledge density aggregated at the country level and a selection of World Development Indicators (WDI) [87].