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Table 1 Summary results from our proposed pipeline. Each row is a modal cluster or choice of one or more modes of transportation for commuting trips. The Travel Survey column shows the distribution of these modes according to collected data in 2012. The XDR column shows the inferred distribution used our methods. Since the Travel Survey does not contain trips in all possible Origin-Destination (OD) pairs, the third column shows the number of comparable pairs for evaluation. We compared the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient ρ for each modal cluster to evaluate coherence between inferred and known commuting flows, and performed the Mann–Whitney U test to measure whether both distributions were the same. Results indicate a high level of similarity but statistically different distributions. Legend: : \(p < 0.05\); : \(p < 0.01\); : \(p < 0.001\)

From: Inferring modes of transportation using mobile phone data

Mode of Transportation Travel Survey XDR Comparable OD-Pairs OD ρ OD U OD Res. μ OD Res. σ
Bus 23.69% 21.67% 585 0.63 171,055 0 4.42
Metro 8.43% 23.90% 225 0.68 23,692 0.69 7.12
Metro & Bus 14.38% 30.07% 492 0.59 105,465 0 5.48
Car 29.60% 22.00% 652 0.60 198,109 0 4.82
Pedestrian 23.40% 2.37% 126 0.59 6408 0 5.75