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Table 3 Feature statistics in terms Means, Medians, Standard Deviations (Sd.Dev.), Minima (Min.) and Maxima (Max.) for the Allrecipes.com and Kochbar.de platforms (main dishes). The last two columns report statistics in terms of p-values and effect sizes (r) which aim at comparing the feature distributions between the platforms. r ranges from 0–1 and gives an impression about the magnitude of the observed differences (\(0 = \mbox{no difference}\), \(1 = \mbox{very large differences}\)). The first 7 feature sets capture recipe and user specific properties, while the last feature set captures recipe popularity, the outcome variable we aim to predict

From: On the predictability of the popularity of online recipes

Feature Allrecipes.com (N = 11,194) Kochbar.de (N = 81,232) p-value r
Mean Median Std.Dev. Min. Max. Mean Median Std.Dev. Min. Max.
Recipe Nutrition (4)             
Kcal (per 100 g) 162.24 153.00 65.02 4.00 697.00 \( \underline{213}\underline{.}\underline{08} \) 172.00 158.71 1.00 998.00 <0.001 0.06
Protein (per 100 g) \( \underline{9}\underline{.}\underline{44} \) 9.08 4.00 0.13 27.62 6.49 4.70 5.51 0.00 36.00 <0.001 0.23
Carbohydrates (per 100 g) 11.54 10.23 8.44 0.00 79.74 \( \underline{11}\underline{.}\underline{88} \) 5.70 15.26 0.00 100.00 <0.001 0.11
Fat (per 100 g) 8.66 7.64 5.43 0.03 53.97 \( \underline{15}\underline{.}\underline{47} \) 10.00 17.39 0.00 99.90 <0.001 0.10
Recipe Healthiness (1)             
WHO Health Score 0.35 0.00 0.66 0.00 3.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{36} \) 0.00 0.63 0.00 3.00 <0.001 0.01
Recipe Complexity (4)             
Preparation Time (Min.) \( \underline{86}\underline{.}\underline{22} \) 50.00 113.54 3.00 1740.00 41.43 30.00 32.70 1.00 1180.00 <0.001 0.24
Num. Preparation Steps 3.75 4.00 1.63 1.00 19.00 \( \underline{4}\underline{.}\underline{15} \) 4.00 2.89 1.00 25.00 <0.01 0.01
Num. Servings \( \underline{6}\underline{.}\underline{31} \) 6.00 3.95 1.00 72.00 3.74 4.00 1.73 1.00 70.00 <0.001 0.31
Num. Ingredients 10.00 9.00 4.00 1.00 35.00 \( \underline{11}\underline{.}\underline{41} \) 11.00 4.02 1.00 72.00 <0.001 0.12
Num. Categories 4.31 4.00 0.88 3.00 6.00 \( \underline{12}\underline{.}\underline{61} \) 12.00 5.75 1.00 36.00 <0.001 0.50
Recipe Presentation (21)             
Image: Sharpness \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{18} \) 0.17 0.09 0.02 0.81 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{18} \) 0.15 0.10 0.01 1.21 <0.001 0.07
Image: Sharpness Variation \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{29} \) 0.26 0.15 0.00 1.50 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{29} \) 0.26 0.17 0.01 2.00 <0.1 0.01
Image: Contrast \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{05} \) 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.16 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{05} \) 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.19 <0.001 0.00
Image: Contrast RGB \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{17} \) 0.16 0.07 0.00 0.49 0.16 0.15 0.07 0.01 0.57 <0.001 0.00
Image: Saturation \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{27} \) 0.26 0.10 0.02 0.75 0.23 0.21 0.10 0.00 0.80 <0.001 0.18
Image: Saturation Variation \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{15} \) 0.15 0.05 0.00 0.41 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{15} \) 0.15 0.05 0.00 0.41 <0.001 0.02
Image: Brightness 0.49 0.49 0.10 0.12 0.89 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{50} \) 0.49 0.11 0.06 0.92 <0.001 0.03
Image: Colorfulness \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{24} \) 0.24 0.07 0.03 0.54 0.23 0.22 0.08 0.00 0.68 <0.001 0.08
Image: Entropy \( \underline{7}\underline{.}\underline{47} \) 7.53 0.32 3.16 7.96 7.37 7.43 0.34 4.25 7.96 <0.001 0.13
Image: Naturalness \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{83} \) 0.85 0.12 0.00 1.00 0.79 0.80 0.13 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.11
Instruction: Num. Chars 682.57 616.00 327.94 86.00 2866.00 \( \underline{775}\underline{.}\underline{61} \) 690.00 417.15 10.00 5761.00 <0.001 0.08
Instruction: Num. Words \( \underline{115}\underline{.}\underline{99} \) 104.00 56.07 14.00 498.00 110.20 97.00 60.89 1.00 889.00 <0.001 0.00
Instruction: Num. Sentences 9.73 9.00 4.34 1.00 40.00 \( \underline{10}\underline{.}\underline{48} \) 10.00 5.91 1.00 64.00 <0.001 0.03
Instruction: Readability Score 30.42 30.45 5.50 8.00 54.49 \( \underline{48}\underline{.}\underline{84} \) 45.92 16.62 1.00 379.91 <0.001 0.53
Instruction: Entropy 4.35 4.35 0.08 3.96 4.63 \( \underline{4}\underline{.}\underline{51} \) 4.51 0.10 2.85 5.52 <0.001 0.46
Instruction: Sentiment 0.15 0.00 0.99 −3.00 4.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{28} \) 0.00 1.13 −4.00 4.00 <0.001 0.04
Title: Num. Characters 25.43 24.00 9.93 3.00 110.00 \( \underline{50}\underline{.}\underline{94} \) 44.00 31.56 3.00 400.00 <0.001 0.33
Title: Num. Words 4.13 4.00 1.85 1.00 19.00 \( \underline{7}\underline{.}\underline{72} \) 6.00 5.61 1.00 70.00 <0.001 0.24
Title: Readability Score 39.99 36.33 27.61 1.00 105.00 \( \underline{54}\underline{.}\underline{72} \) 52.00 22.61 1.00 107.00 <0.001 0.19
Title: Entropy 3.72 3.76 0.33 1.50 4.54 \( \underline{4}\underline{.}\underline{04} \) 4.10 0.37 1.50 5.18 <0.001 0.30
Title: Sentiment 0.03 0.00 0.33 −3.00 4.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{39} \) 0.00 0.99 −4.00 4.00 <0.001 0.09
Recipe Seasonality (4)             
Upload Month 5.96 6.00 3.28 1.00 12.00 \( \underline{6}\underline{.}\underline{12} \) 6.00 3.45 1.00 12.00 <0.001 0.01
Day of Month 15.71 16.00 8.74 1.00 31.00 \( \underline{15}\underline{.}\underline{72} \) 16.00 8.74 1.00 31.00 0.541 0.00
Day of Week \( \underline{4}\underline{.}\underline{23} \) 5.00 2.01 1.00 7.00 3.84 4.00 2.01 1.00 7.00 <0.001 0.00
Within Season \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{08} \) 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.25 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{08} \) 0.08 0.01 0.05 0.16 <0.001 0.06
Recipe Innovation (6)             
Ingredients rank \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{08} \) 0.06 0.05 0.00 1.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{08} \) 0.07 0.05 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.01
Categories rank 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.00 1.00 \( \underline {0}\underline{.}\underline{07} \) 0.06 0.03 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.24
Title Words rank \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{07} \) 0.04 0.10 0.00 1.00 0.05 0.03 0.08 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.11
Recipe Innovation Jaccard \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{57} \) 0.60 0.14 0.00 1.00 0.51 0.53 0.13 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.00
Avg. Recipe Innovation Jaccard \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{96} \) 0.97 0.02 0.00 1.00 0.94 0.94 0.02 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.33
Recipe Innovation IDF \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{02} \) 0.01 0.05 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 1.00 <0.001 0.37
User Activity & Context (16)             
Num. Recipes uploaded until Upload 16.96 0.00 78.71 0.00 1386.00 \( \underline{258}\underline{.}\underline{32} \) 94.00 380.71 0.00 5795.00 <0.001 0.42
Num. Comments written until Upload 9.24 0.00 55.26 0.00 2027.00 \( \underline{1582}\underline{.}\underline{92} \) 103.00 4000.69 0.00 38,124.00 <0.001 0.39
Num. Comments received until Upload 73.36 0.00 514.37 0.00 6310.00 \( \underline{2472}\underline{.}\underline{59} \) 317.00 5470.63 0.00 52,878.00 <0.001 0.44
Num. Recipes uploaded per day 0.05 0.00 0.16 0.00 1.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{34} \) 0.16 0.58 0.00 11.25 <0.001 0.28
Num. Recipes uploaded per week 0.38 0.02 1.11 0.00 7.01 \( \underline{2}\underline{.}\underline{39} \) 1.14 3.94 0.00 63.00 <0.001 0.28
Num. Recipes uploaded per month 1.64 0.10 4.83 0.01 30.48 \( 1\underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{38} \) 4.96 17.15 0.01 270.00 <0.001 0.28
Num. Recipes uploaded per year 19.68 1.16 57.98 0.07 365.90 \( \underline{124}\underline{.}\underline{55} \) 59.54 205.54 0.16 3285.00 <0.001 0.28
Num. Ratings provided per day 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.91 \( \underline{5}\underline{.}\underline{93} \) 1.70 10.01 0.00 95.28 <0.001 0.28
Num. Ratings provided per week 0.11 0.02 0.35 0.00 6.35 \( \underline{41}\underline{.}\underline{49} \) 11.87 70.07 0.00 666.98 <0.001 0.28
Num. Ratings provided per month 0.46 0.10 1.48 0.00 27.23 \( \underline{177}\underline{.}\underline{80} \) 50.89 300.30 0.00 2858.49 <0.001 0.28
Num. Ratings provided per year 5.49 1.23 17.55 0.00 323.18 \( \underline{2109}\underline{.}\underline{90} \) 603.89 3563.61 0.00 33,920.80 <0.001 0.28
Num. Comments provided per day 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.91 \( \underline{2}\underline{.}\underline{25} \) 0.48 4.31 0.00 50.43 <0.001 0.29
Num. Comments provided per week 0.11 0.02 0.35 0.00 6.35 \( \underline{15}\underline{.}\underline{76} \) 3.37 30.15 0.00 350.88 <0.001 0.25
Num. Comments provided per month 0.46 0.10 1.48 0.00 27.23 \( \underline{68}\underline{.}\underline{52} \) 14.64 131.14 0.01 1535.51 <0.001 0.25
Num. Comments provided per year 5.49 1.23 17.55 0.00 323.18 \( \underline{822}\underline{.}\underline{10} \) 175.63 1573.07 0.16 18,295.90 <0.001 0.25
Cook Living in Germany/USA 0.88 1.00 0.33 0.00 1.00 \( \underline{0}\underline{.}\underline{90} \) 1.00 0.29 0.00 1.00 <0.1 0.01
Recipe Popularity (8)             
Num. Comments received within day 0.09 0.00 0.30 0.00 5.00 \( \underline{5}\underline{.}\underline{14} \) 2.00 7.11 0.00 75.00 <0.001 0.42
Num. Comments received within week 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.00 7.00 \( \underline{7}\underline{.}\underline{83} \) 4.00 9.29 0.00 92.00 <0.001 0.49
Num. Comments received within month 0.43 0.00 0.97 0.00 24.00 \( \underline{8}\underline{.}\underline{34} \) 5.00 9.53 0.00 96.00 <0.001 0.48
Num. Comments received within year 2.30 1.00 5.43 0.00 212.00 \( \underline{9}\underline{.}\underline{19} \) 6.00 9.86 0.00 123.00 <0.001 0.37
Num. Ratings received within day 0.09 0.00 0.30 0.00 5.00 \( \underline{11}\underline{.}\underline{73} \) 6.00 14.46 0.00 127.00 <0.001 0.47
Num. Ratings received within week 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.00 7.00 \( \underline{19}\underline{.}\underline{23} \) 11.00 20.85 0.00 169.00 <0.001 0.50
Num. Ratings received within month 0.43 0.00 0.97 0.00 24.00 \( \underline{20}\underline{.}\underline{60} \) 12.00 21.66 0.00 175.00 <0.001 0.50
Num. Ratings received within year 2.30 1.00 5.43 0.00 212.00 \( \underline{23}\underline{.}\underline{13} \) 15.00 22.37 0.00 206.00 <0.001 0.47
  1. Note: Language dependent features. Indicates the 4 dependent variables features which we predict in this paper. We do not predict the number of ratings/comments received within one day/year as they are very similar to the results obtained from the week and month prediction task. Higher mean values (M) in terms of compared features are underlined. indicates low effect size, medium effect size and high effects. Effect sizes below r<0.1 are not marked.