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Table 6 Confusion matrix for multi-class cyber hate classification using a combined dataset of 3 different protected characteristics

From: Us and them: identifying cyber hate on Twitter across multiple protected characteristics

Typed dependency Explanation
Homophobic samples  
det(backdoor-7, the-6) Determiner (a specific reference to a noun phrase) discussing ‘the backdoor’ in a context of homosexual activity
dobj(kill-2, yourself-3) Direct object (an accusatory object of the verb) suggesting homosexual ‘others’ should ‘kill yourself’
det(closet-8, the-7) Determiner (a specific reference to a noun phrase) discussing ‘the closet’ - most likely referring to where the person should have remained
amod(disgrace-6, absolute-5) Adjectival modifier (a descriptive phrase related to a noun phrase) discussing ‘disgrace’ - and amplifying this accusation with ‘absolute’
det(disgrace-6, an-4) aux(commending-12, him-13) Determiner (a specific reference to a noun phrase) discussing ‘disgrace’ - plus Auxiliary ‘commending’, branding people commending the person a disgrace
Race samples  
advcl(won-7, black-11) advcl(won-7, obama-13) Two adverbial clause modifiers relating ‘won’ and ‘obama’ & ‘won’ and ‘black’ - highlighting the colour of skin as a key related term to the victory
aux(destroying-10, is-9) Auxiliary verb potentially suggesting Obama is having a ‘destroying’ impact
amod(people-7, white-6), advmod(won-11, how-9) Modifiers linking ‘white people’ to the outcome of the election outcomes ‘how…won’
dobj(see-13, you-14) Direct object (an accusatory object of the verb) referring to ‘you’ and the impact the outcome may have
Disability samples  
amod(athletes-11, olympic-10) advmod(drunk-14, really-13) Modifiers referring to ‘olympic athletes’ and ‘really drunk’ in mocking manner referring to ‘you’ and the impact the outcome may have
det(jokes-10,the-9) Referring to noun ‘joke’ in relation to paralympic athletes
amod(women-12,disabled-11) dobj(falling-13,wish-15) Modifier of ‘women’ to refer to ‘disabled’ female athletes and ‘wish’ they would be ‘falling’ using direct object
amod(bench-11, midget-9) The key term here being the derogatory term ‘midget’