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Table 1 Top 20 composers for degree, eigenvector, and betweenness centralities

From: Topology and evolution of the network of western classical music composers

Rank Bipartite degree ( q ) Projected degree ( k ) Eigenvector centrality Betweenness centrality
Name Period Name Period Name Period Name Period
1 WA Mozart C JS Bach B JS Bach B JS Bach B
2 JS Bach B WA Mozart C WA Mozart C WA Mozart C
3 Beethoven R Handel B Handel B Handel B
4 Brahms R Brahms R Brahms R Piazzolla M
5 Schubert R Mendelssohn R Mendelssohn R Brahms R
6 Verdi R Debussy M Schubert R Gershwin M
7 Tchaikovsky R Schubert R Debussy M Debussy M
8 R Schumann R Beethoven R Beethoven R Mendelssohn R
9 Handel B Saint-Saëns R Saint-Saëns R Schubert R
10 Wagner R Tchaikovsky R Tchaikovsky R Beethoven R
11 Chopin R Ravel M Ravel M Villa-Lobos M
12 Haydn C Gershwin M Fauré R Ravel M
13 Liszt R R Schumann R R Schumann R Tchaikovsky R
14 Mendelssohn R Fauré R Liszt R Copland M
15 Debussy M Liszt R Chopin R Saint-Saëns R
16 Puccini R Vivaldi B Vivaldi B Vivaldi B
17 Vivaldi B Piazzolla M Rossini R Stravinsky M
18 Dvor̆ák R Rossini R Rachmaninoff M Britten M
19 Ravel M Chopin R Haydn C Hindemith M
20 R Strauss R Verdi R Gershwin M Bernstein M
  1. Each centrality can be interpreted as representing distinct composer characteristics: The bipartite degree represents a composer’s popularity; the projected degree represents a composer’s compatibility with others; the eigenvector centrality is a generalization of the degree that considers the quality of connections (e.g. whether a composer tends to be paired with other prominent composers); the betweenness centrality measures how often a composer acts as an intermediary between two composers. Periods are abbreviated: Baroque (B), Classical (C), Romantic (R), and Modern (M).